Was the drive you had this issue with original to the machine, or replaced? Toshiba likes to use Toshiba 2.5” hard drives, and they’re horrible in terms of failure rate after 2-3 years. It’s often the hard drive with Toshiba laptops.
What I would do to start with is get a 256-512GB SSD and then reinstall Windows from a 20H2 boot USB, which can be created with the Media Creation Tool. If this is your only PC, what I would do is get in touch with someone and give them a USB drive to make you one, or see if a local computer shop will set one up for you for a few bucks. Get a 16GB USB drive - they’re cheap enough you might as well spend the extra $1-2. I would also let them know you need 10 Home just in case they have a 10 Pro computer - you have a factory installed 8.1 Home laptop, so if you did it with the Media Creation Tool you got 10 Home. If not, check your specific edition of 10 to be sure. If you ask someone with a enterprise laptop, let them know in advance. Ex: My HP EliteBook runs 10 Pro, and so does my E7440. I would need to know in advance.
TIP: Typically, the ThinkPads come with Pro, but some ship with Home. Most every Pro/EliteBook ship with Pro, along with the Latitude/Precision line.
The Home/Pro difference hasn’t mattered in a little while since Microsoft finally released a single image that detects your version somewhat recently for the Media Creation Tool, but it’s probably still a good idea to tell them what you need specifically just in case they use other image sources which DO differentiate, like the Technet images. This is what I got with the 20H2 media creation tool: